Thursday, June 4, 2020
Genetically Modified Crops (Essay Sample) Content: Genetically modified cropsStudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s nameInstitutional affiliationsGenetically modified (GM) cropsGene technology is a branch of modern biotechnology concerned with the deliberate modification of the organismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s genome to produce the desired traits. Therefore, Genetic engineering of crops is the alteration of the gene sequence of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of crops by insertion or gene replacement to obtain the specific traits such as pest resistance and drought tolerance. The modified plants are thus referred as genetically modified crops. The aim of the gene technology is to create the new trait that the harvest does not naturally possess. Farmers have widely adopted the GM technology in the cultivation of the different crops to improve the quality and produce.Genetic engineering of plants has seen great success in farming since the first modified antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant in 1982 (Hull, 2009). Golden rice is genetically modified, and the crop is altered to produce high levels of vitamin A. Daffodils, and a bacterium genes are implanted to provide beta-carotene elements that are converted to vitamin A in the body. Genetically modification of tomatoes runs back to 1994 when the first modified tomatoes were availed to the consumers (Forman, 2010). Currently over 50 crops are genetically engineered to serve the growing populations. The field of crop genetic engineering has shown significant progress due to the greater understanding of the deoxyribonucleic acid as the chemical double helix bond that is the basis for genes.Modern plant design utilizes the recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A gene is a genetic print and is the molecular unit of inheritance and each segment of the DNA codes for the synthesis of a particular product. DNA extraction techniques aim to lyse the cells and solubilize the DNA that is amplified using PCR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is series of steps method th at multiply or amplify the DNA. Millions of DNA copies can be produced from a single DNA copy. The DNA segments can then be combined with a series of procedures and integrated into the chromosome of a different crop. Genetic engineering allows the transfer of one or few genes to closely-related or distant organisms (Hull, 2009).The technique of genetic engineering involves the use of one or more gene sequences from one organism into the chromosome of the target organism. It involves five critical steps which are DNA extraction, gene cloning, gene design, and transformation and backcross breeding. DNA is extracted from the desired organism, a single gene is separated from the other genes, develops the gene, the gene is inserted into the cells, and finally transgenic crops are crossed with elite breeding lines. The intended gene is usually marked by an antibiotic resistant marker gene and then isolated on culture plate containing the respective antibiotic. A bacteria or naked virus is used to inject the gene into the recipient genome (Carter, 2011).The central dogma of gene engineering is that DNA contains the genetic information and the information flows from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, from nucleic acid to the protein but never from the protein to the nucleic acid. Proteins can make copies of DNA but cannot make copies of proteins independent of the genetic blueprint. The specific enzymes that are involved in genetic engineering have an essential function. Restriction and ligases enzymes identify specific DNA sequences and cut them into smaller fragments (Hull, 2009). Genetic code and DNA structure are universal thus allow the recombination of DNA from the different organism. Recombinant DNA technology, therefore, enables construction of crops with novel traits.However, ethical and social concerns provide possible implication on the genetic engineering of plants despite Food and Drug Association declaring them safe for consumption. Several objections have been made to GM crops based on various grounds including environmental concerns, ethical, social concerns and economic concerns since these plants are guarded by intellectual property law. Extensive debates concerning the genetically modified crops have been rampant over the last quarter century. Ethical arguments have taken up the extensive intellectual rights to genes and their effect on human health, production, and control of the seeds by the processing companies. Despite its high adoption, there exists a multitude of social concerns on GMO. Some authors have extended the arguments to the unnatural medical setting of the food domain. GMO farming has socio-economic impacts on organic and small-scale holder farms (Carter, 2011).GMO use benefits the environment, the farmers, and the consumers. Engineering crops improve the yields, drought tolerance, increases pesticide resistant, enhances the quality of crops and ens... Genetically Modified Crops Essay - 825 Words Genetically Modified Crops (Essay Sample) Content: Genetically modified cropsStudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s nameInstitutional affiliationsGenetically modified (GM) cropsGene technology is a branch of modern biotechnology concerned with the deliberate modification of the organismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s genome to produce the desired traits. Therefore, Genetic engineering of crops is the alteration of the gene sequence of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of crops by insertion or gene replacement to obtain the specific traits such as pest resistance and drought tolerance. The modified plants are thus referred as genetically modified crops. The aim of the gene technology is to create the new trait that the harvest does not naturally possess. Farmers have widely adopted the GM technology in the cultivation of the different crops to improve the quality and produce.Genetic engineering of plants has seen great success in farming since the first modified antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant in 1982 (Hull, 2009). Golden rice is genetically modified, and the crop is altered to produce high levels of vitamin A. Daffodils, and a bacterium genes are implanted to provide beta-carotene elements that are converted to vitamin A in the body. Genetically modification of tomatoes runs back to 1994 when the first modified tomatoes were availed to the consumers (Forman, 2010). Currently over 50 crops are genetically engineered to serve the growing populations. The field of crop genetic engineering has shown significant progress due to the greater understanding of the deoxyribonucleic acid as the chemical double helix bond that is the basis for genes.Modern plant design utilizes the recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A gene is a genetic print and is the molecular unit of inheritance and each segment of the DNA codes for the synthesis of a particular product. DNA extraction techniques aim to lyse the cells and solubilize the DNA that is amplified using PCR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is series of steps method th at multiply or amplify the DNA. Millions of DNA copies can be produced from a single DNA copy. The DNA segments can then be combined with a series of procedures and integrated into the chromosome of a different crop. Genetic engineering allows the transfer of one or few genes to closely-related or distant organisms (Hull, 2009).The technique of genetic engineering involves the use of one or more gene sequences from one organism into the chromosome of the target organism. It involves five critical steps which are DNA extraction, gene cloning, gene design, and transformation and backcross breeding. DNA is extracted from the desired organism, a single gene is separated from the other genes, develops the gene, the gene is inserted into the cells, and finally transgenic crops are crossed with elite breeding lines. The intended gene is usually marked by an antibiotic resistant marker gene and then isolated on culture plate containing the respective antibiotic. A bacteria or naked virus is used to inject the gene into the recipient genome (Carter, 2011).The central dogma of gene engineering is that DNA contains the genetic information and the information flows from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, from nucleic acid to the protein but never from the protein to the nucleic acid. Proteins can make copies of DNA but cannot make copies of proteins independent of the genetic blueprint. The specific enzymes that are involved in genetic engineering have an essential function. Restriction and ligases enzymes identify specific DNA sequences and cut them into smaller fragments (Hull, 2009). Genetic code and DNA structure are universal thus allow the recombination of DNA from the different organism. Recombinant DNA technology, therefore, enables construction of crops with novel traits.However, ethical and social concerns provide possible implication on the genetic engineering of plants despite Food and Drug Association declaring them safe for consumption. Several objections have been made to GM crops based on various grounds including environmental concerns, ethical, social concerns and economic concerns since these plants are guarded by intellectual property law. Extensive debates concerning the genetically modified crops have been rampant over the last quarter century. Ethical arguments have taken up the extensive intellectual rights to genes and their effect on human health, production, and control of the seeds by the processing companies. Despite its high adoption, there exists a multitude of social concerns on GMO. Some authors have extended the arguments to the unnatural medical setting of the food domain. GMO farming has socio-economic impacts on organic and small-scale holder farms (Carter, 2011).GMO use benefits the environment, the farmers, and the consumers. Engineering crops improve the yields, drought tolerance, increases pesticide resistant, enhances the quality of crops and ens...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Transform boundaries are areas where the Earths plates move past each other, rubbing along the edges. They are, however, much more complex than that. There are three types of plate boundaries or zones, each of which features a different type of plate interaction. Transform boundaries are one example. The others areÃ convergentÃ boundaries (where plates collide) andÃ divergentÃ boundaries (where plates split apart). Each of these three types of plate boundary has its own particular type of faultÃ (or crack) along which motion occurs. Transforms areÃ strike-slipÃ faults. There is no vertical movementÃ¢â¬âonly horizontal. Convergent boundaries are thrust or reverse faults, and divergent boundaries are normal faults. As the plates slide across from each other, they neither create land nor destroy it. Because of this, they are sometimes referred to as conservative boundaries or margins. TheirÃ relative movement can be described as either dextral (to the right) orÃ sinistral (to the left). Transform boundaries were first conceived of by Canadian geophysicistÃ John Tuzo Wilson in 1965. Initially skeptical of plate tectonics, Tuzo Wilson was also the first to propose the theory of hotspot Ã volcanoes. Seafloor Spreading Most transform boundaries consist of short faults on the seafloor occurring near mid-ocean ridges. As the plates split apart, they do so at differing speeds, creating spaceÃ¢â¬âanywhere from a few to several hundred milesÃ¢â¬âbetweenÃ spreading margins. As the plates in this space continue to diverge, they do so in opposite directions. This lateral movement forms active transform boundaries. Between the spreading segments, the sides of the transform boundary rub together; but as soon as the seafloor spreads beyond the overlap, the two sides stop rubbing and travel abreast. The result is a split in the crust, called a fracture zone, that extends across the seafloor far beyond the small transform that created it. Transform boundaries connect to perpendicular divergent (and sometimes convergent) boundaries on both ends, giving the overall appearance of zig-zags or staircases. This configuration offsets energy from the whole process. Continental Transform Boundaries Continental transforms are more complex than their short oceanic counterparts. The forces affecting them include a degree of compression or extension across them, creating dynamics known as transpression and transtension. These extra forces are why coastal California, basically a transform tectonic regime, also has many mountainous welts and down-dropped valleys. TheÃ San Andreas faultÃ of California is a prime example of a continental transform boundary; others are the North Anatolian fault of northern Turkey, the Alpine fault crossing New Zealand, the Dead Sea rift in the Middle East, the Queen Charlotte Islands fault off western Canada, and theÃ Magellanes-Fagnano fault systemÃ of South America. Because of the thickness of the continental lithosphere and its variety of rocks, transform boundariesÃ on continents are not simple cracks but wide zones of deformation. The San Andreas fault itself is just one thread in a 100-kilometer skein of faults making up the San Andreas fault zone. TheÃ dangerous Hayward faultÃ also takes up a share of the total transform motion, and the Walker Lane belt, far inland beyond the Sierra Nevada, takes up a small amount too. Transform Earthquakes Although they neither create nor destroy land, transform boundaries and strike-slip faults can create deep, shallow earthquakes. These are common at mid-ocean ridges, but they do not normally produce deadly tsunamisÃ because there is no vertical displacement of seafloor. When these earthquakes occur on land, on the other hand, they can cause large amounts of damage. Notable strike-slip quakes include the 1906 San Francisco,Ã 2010 Haiti,Ã and 2012 SumatraÃ earthquakes. The 2012 Sumatran quake was particularly powerful; its 8.6 magnitude was the largest ever recorded for a strike-slip fault.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Bullying can lead to many unwanted, harmful consequences for both the t victim and tbe perpetrator. There are many actions that are considered bullying as well as many different types of bullying, yet bullying laws already in place seem to be only consider specific types of bullying. If more thorough laws were put into place, instances of bullying would decrease to some degree. Therefore, the state or federal government should put bullying prevention laws into place. Bullying can take place in a variety of ways and is therefore difficult to find one exhaustive definition for. Susan Carter explains bullying as Ã¢â¬Å"a relationship problem involving repeated hostile actions that take place within a relationship characterized by a powerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One of these groups is people with Autism Spectrum Disorders because of Ã¢â¬Å"their difficulties in making and maintain friendshipsÃ¢â¬ (Zablotsky 179). People should not have to endure because of a disability, their sexuality, their size, or any difference between them and others. It is cruel to bully someone for any reason, but especially because they are not like the majority of the world. Statistics from the Government Accountability Office show that Ã¢â¬Å"31.5% of students were called mean names and/or teased, Ã¢â¬ 13.1% were called mean names because of their race or color,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"8.5% were called mean names because of their religion,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"12.8% were p hysically hurt or locked indoorsÃ¢â¬ (Garby 449). This means that out of every one hundred people that are bullied, twelve or thirteen people actually had something physical done to them. This may result in severe injuries for a fair number of people. If the state or federal government made anti-bullying laws, fewer people would have injuries as a result of bullying. According to Israel C. Kalman, Psychology fails to solve the problem of bullying. He believes that Ã¢â¬Å"anti-bullying laws create a new class of criminalÃ¢â¬ (80). Anti- bullying laws consider the bullies criminals. This seems harsh as a common reason that people bully others is that they are simply insecure with themselves. This insecurity may stem from bullying at home. Susan Carter notes thatShow MoreRelatedResearch Paper Bullying1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrategies to Prevent Bullying One in five children between the ages of ten and eighteen, have been bullied both inside and outside of school. Government officials, and school administrators, are taking strides to prevent the act of bullying. Laws and anti-bully programs are being passed all over the United States to stop the bullying epidemic. There are bullies all over, torturing children for things such as appearance, sexual orientation, race, personality and much more. 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The new law gives all students the right Ã¢â¬Å"to participate in sex-segregated programs, activities and facilitiesÃ¢â¬ based on their self-perceived orientation regardless of their birth gender. AB1266 and Section 221.5 of the Education Code provides equal rights for transgender individuals and promotes anti-discrimination. By allowing transgender boys and girls the right to use a restroom that corresponds toRead MoreThe Position Of A Hr Manager At Both The Uk And Russian Olympics2203 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmeasures if the Olympic Games were to happen again today. I will approach such a task by first outlining t he history and definitions associated with LGBT. I will frame this essay by drawing upon social and political changes through the enactment of laws and social movements, as well as empirical research, class-based discussions, and theories of equality and diversity. Brief history of the definition of LGBT: The acronym LGBT aims to emphasize the diversity of sexuality and gender identity-basedRead MoreToxicity in the Workplace3766 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pages Overview of Toxicity: Ã¢â¬Å"Violence, aggression, bullying, tyranny, harassment, deviance, and injustice Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Cortina 2001), the Ã¢â¬Ëmagnificent sevenÃ¢â¬â¢ anti-socialites comprising Workplace Toxicity. A relatively new field of study, the idea of workplace toxicity develops from the impact of bullying, and the emotional consequences it has on the organization. There has been surging interest over the past two decades on the cause and effect of bullying in the workplace (Rayner, 2002); and an ever-growing
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Explain On May Want To Regulate Natural Monopolies? Answer: Introduction In every economy, natural monopolies play a significant role. Primarily, a monopoly refers to a market in which when only one firm operates and dominates an entire industry (Beggs, 2016). On the other hand, a natural monopoly is a specific type of monopoly that arises when a single find firm dominates the market due to extremely high startup capital and fixed costs associated with Operations in the market. Mainly, natural monopolies exists where there are high fixed costs of production and distribution, thereby necessitating economies of scale. A perfect example of a natural monopoly is the electricity company. It is characterized by high costs of infrastructure in terms of grids and cables for electricity supply. Thus, the efficient number of firms in the industry is one. It is noteworthy that a natural monopoly market differs from a perfect competition in terms of competition, entry and exit requirements, and number of sellers. In a perfect competition, there is free entry and exit of firms while there are high barriers to entry in natural monopoly markets. There is also no form of competition in natural monopolies whereas there is high competition in perfect competition markets. Thus, the structure of natural monopolies provides room for consumer exploitation and governments may want to regulate monopolies to ensure that they produce high quality, fair priced goods at efficient levels. Analysis Reasons for Regulation High Monopoly Market Power One of the major reasons as to why the government may seek to regulate natural monopolies is due to their market structure. As such, the market structure of a natural monopoly necessitates that various measures must be initiated to control firms from exploiting their customers. In a nutshell, a natural monopoly operates as the sole producer of a given product (Arkani, 2010). The firm is also a price maker. Usually, firms limit the quantity they produce in order to push their prices upwards. Furthermore, the market is also characterized by high barriers to entry into the market caused by high capital requirements (Monopoly, n.d.). There are also high legal barriers in the market. For this reason, the firm has a high market power and influences the market. Therefore, the government may step in to limit the market power of natural monopolies to ensure that they do not exploit their customers. Control Price Level As noted earlier, natural monopolies do not face any form of competition in their market. Therefore, they possess a high market power, and are able to control the quantity of goods. In turn, they have the power to set their own prices. In most cases, natural monopolies abuse their market power and set high prices for their goods and services, higher than the price they would have charged if the firm operated in a competitive market structure (Welker, n.d.). For this reason, governments may want to regulate them in order to preserve consumer welfare. According to economic theory, monopolies set their prices at a point that maximizes their profits. Normally, firms manufacture goods at the point where their marginal costs of production equals the marginal revenue. However, they charge the price determined by the demand curve. For this reason, the price they charge is usually high than the marginal cost of production. Consequently, this allows them to obtain high profits at the disadvantage of their consumers welfare. Monopoly Pricing Technique From the graphs above, the MC curve intersects with MR curve at point a (Pettinger, 2012). However, instead of setting its price at this point, the firm locates the demand curve for the product, thereby setting its price from point b (Pettinger, 2012). At this pricing, the price is higher than the Average total costs incurred in the production of the good. Thus, the monopoly makes a profit equal to Pm-ATC (Pettinger, 2012). In contrast, a firm operating in a competitive market sets its prices at the point where the demand and supply curve intersect. Thus, unlike natural monopoly, the price is optimal and there is no deadweight loss associated with its pricing. Therefore, in this regard, the natural monopoly makes supernormal profits and reduces the welfare of consumers. Thus, the government may find it necessary to step in and regulate the pricing level. Enhance Firms Efficiency n addition, governments regulate natural monopolies in order to enhance their level of efficiency. It is worth noting that monopoly firms are associated with various forms of inefficiencies. As noted earlier, natural monopolies do not experience any form of competition. The weakened market forces guarantees that consumers lack other alternatives from which to purchase the product or service (Beggs, 2017). Thus, the firm does not worry about the possibilities of losing customers due to their poor quality goods or services. For this reason, they lack the incentive to improve their level of innovativeness to improve the quality of their commodities. Subsequently, it translates to wastefulness production of goods and services. Therefore, in this case, the government seeks to protect consumers against poor quality services and products by setting and regulating quality standards. Furthermore, natural monopolies also lead to inefficiencies as they reduce the level of producer and consumer surplus (Beggs, 2017). When compared to the competition market structure, the total surplus associated with the monopolistic firms is smaller. Mainly, this can attributed to the fact that monopolies tend to limit the quantity of goods and services they produce in order to influence prices to move upwards. Thus, a reduction in quantity and an increase in price of the product shrink the consumer as well as the producer surplus. In this regard, the management opts to regulate monopolies in order to raise the total surplus to the society. Methods for Regulation Given the reasons above, it is important for the government to regulate the conduct of natural monopolies within its economy. Mainly, regulation can take the form of price ceilings, average cost pricing, rate of return regulation and the formulation of regulatory bodies to oversee and control the conduct of monopolies within the country (Beggs, 2015). Fair Rate of Return Policies First, government may employ rate of return policies to control natural monopolies in the country. Primarily, this technique involves the government setting a particular percentage net profit that a company must not exceed. Usually, it takes into consideration the size of the firm and determines a reasonable level of profit from its initial capital. Therefore, in order to ensure compliance, a firm must ensure that its percent net profit is lower that the set threshold. Thus, the firms rate of return on the invested capital is kept below the maximum rate set by the policy. Consequently, this ensures that firms set their prices at a point that ensures its rate of return on initial investment is low. In turn, the prices are set at low levels to ensure compliance. It is noteworthy that this measure ensures that consumers of that given product are protected from increases in the price of that particular product. Price Caps and Ceilings Notably, this is one of the major forms of regulation that the government can put in place to regulate monopolies. In a nutshell, price ceilings pertain to the setting of a maximum price that a firm can charge for its goods and services (Beggs, 2015). It is strategy that states that a particular product cannot be sold for above a specified price (Beggs, 2015). Thus, firms cannot set a higher price than the one designated by the government. This way, the government is able to limit the prices charged by firms for their products, thereby protecting them from exploitation by natural monopolies. Price Ceiling Regulation Source: (Osborne, 1997). Suppose the government sets a price ceiling for the monopolys product at Pr. Under normal circumstances, the firm would set its price at the point Pm. However, due to the proposed ceiling, the firm is forced to reduce its price down to Pr (Osborne, 1997). Therefore, the government is able to spare consumers an amount equal to Pm-Pr through the price cap. Indeed, this form of regulation allows the government to regulate firms and improve consumer welfare. Government Regulatory Bodies The government may also use regulatory bodies to regulate natural monopolies in the economy. Fundamentally, these bodies are created to examine the quality of products produced by natural monopolies (The Conversation, 2012). The qualities of the products produced are compared to a set of quality standards to ensure that consumers purchase quality goods and services. In addition, these bodies regulate the price level of services and commodities manufactured by natural monopolies within the country. This way, they are able to limit firms from charging consumers exorbitant prices. Apart from assessing quality and controlling pricing levels, regulatory bodies also investigate cases when monopolies are suspected to practice predatory pricing and price fixations (The Conversation, 2012). In the event that a firm is found guilty, the regulatory body takes strict actions and measures against it. As a result, natural monopolies are discouraged from practicing hostile production and market practices (The Conversation, 2012). What is more, these mechanisms guarantee consumer protection and welfare. It also ensures an increase in the efficiency of firms. Average Cost Pricing Policies It is imperative to note that the government may also initiate policies that require natural monopolies to set their prices equal to their average cost of production. By and large, this policy involves setting its price level equal to or below the cost of manufacturing the product. In most cases, natural monopolies maximize their profits by setting price at the point where the marginal cost curve intersects with the demand curve for the product (Reed and LaFaive, 1997). As a result, firms make excessive profits at the expense of the consumer. However, when this policy is implemented, natural monopolies will be forced to trim their prices to equal the cost of production (Reed and LaFaive, 1997). The policy guarantees that the price charged by firms does not exploit their customers. Besides that, it ensures that firms operate at efficient levels to achieve profits. Marginal Cost Pricing Rules Just like average cost pricing rules, the government may use marginal cost rules to regulate natural monopolies. Basically, this policy requires that natural monopolies set their prices equal to the marginal cost incurred in producing their product (Reed and LaFaive, 1997). In turn, it ensures that monopolies do not charge excessive prices for their commodities. In addition, it guarantees that monopolies do not make surplus profit at the disadvantage of the consumer. Example of Regulation of Monopolies in Australia In Australia, the government has set various bodies to act as a watchdog and control the conduct of natural monopolies within the economy. The Energy Regulatory Commission (ERA), for instance, has the mandate to oversee and regulate the price of electricity in the country. As a result, the price of electricity in the country remains affordable to the people of Australia. Conclusion Therefore, everything taken into consideration, it is important for the government to set up measures that ensure the regulation of monopolies in the country. By and large, natural monopolies operate as the sole producer of a particular good or service. As a result, they face no form of competition in the market of their goods and services. This creates a platform for monopolies to exploit their customers through offering poor quality products or high prices. They also lack the incentive to operate under efficient conditions. For this reason, the government is tasked with the responsibility of regulating natural monopolies to ensure they offer fair prices, produce quality goods and services, and operate under efficient conditions. In order to achieve these goals, the government may set up various measures and mechanisms among them average cost pricing measures, rate of return policies, price ceilings, and monopoly regulatory bodies. Consequently, the successful implementation of thes e measures will ensure that the government controls the pricing, quality and efficiency of natural monopolies in the country. References Arkani, G. (2010). Monopoly marketing structure- meaning, features and types. Kaylan City Life. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://kalyan-city.blogspot.co.ke/2010/11/monopoly-market-structure-meaning.html Beggs, J. (2015). Natural monopoly. ThoughtCo. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/natural-monopoly-overview-1147782 Beggs, J. (2016). What Is a Monopoly?. ThoughtCo. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-monopoly-1147778 Beggs, J. (2016). What You Need to Know About Monopolies and Monopoly Power. ThoughtCo. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/overview-of-monopolies-1146257 Beggs, J. (2017). The Economic Inefficiency of Monopoly. ThoughtCo. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/the-economic-inefficiency-of-monopoly-1147784 Deregulation is crucial for lowering Australias electricity costs (2012). The Conversation. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://theconversation.com/deregulation-is-crucial-for-lowering-australias-electricity-costs-10625 Monopoly (2012). Economics Online. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Business_economics/Monopoly.html Natural monopolies are conducive to industries where the largest supplier derives cost advantages and must be regulated to minimize risks. Boundless. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.boundless.com/economics/textbooks/boundless-economics-textbook/monopoly-11/monopoly-in-public-policy-74/regulation-of-natural-monopoly-279-12376/ Orsborne, J. M. (1997). Policies to control a monopoly. University of Toronto. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economics.utoronto.ca/osborne/2x3/tutorial/MONCON.HTM Pettinger, T. (2012). Natural Monopoly. Economics Help. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/glossary/natural-monopoly/ Pettinger, T. Regulation of monopoly.Economics Help. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economicshelp.org/microessays/markets/regulation-monopoly/ Reed, L. and LaiFaive, M. (1997). Natural Monopoly and the need for Government Regulation. Economics Classroom. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://econclassroom.com/?p=3115 Welker, J. Natural Monopoly and the need for Government Regulation. Economics Classroom. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://econclassroom.com/?p=3115
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Medieval Ballads There are many medieval ballads that contain male-female relationships. However, the ballads "Edward", "Bonny Barbara Allen", and "Mattie Groves" stand out because they all contain atypical male-female relationships. The similarities the three ballads share in their male-female relationships are: 1) there is always a conflict between the male and the female and 2) none of these relationships are representative of the ideal male-female relationship or marriage. Although the male-female relationship in the ballad "Edward" revolves around a mother and a son, their relationship is just as convoluted as the ones found in the other ballads. Edward and his mother have a tense and stormy relationship, which is highlighted through their conversations and interactions with each other. Edward's tenseness towards his mother is shown through his replies to his mother's question "why dois your brand sae drap wi bluid?" Instead of telling her the truth, Edward is at first hesitant and lies to his mother by saying the blood on his sword is from hawk, and then says it is actually from his horse. Eventually Edward cracks due to his feelings of guilt and admits to his mother that he actually killed his father (line 21). Expecting to find at least some sympathy and advice from his mother, since it was the mother who gave Edward the idea of killing his father, Edward, instead, is bombarded by a series of questions from his mother. These questions make Edward angry, especially since one of them is how is Edward going to show penance for his actions (line 25)? Even though it is Edward's mother who gives Edward the idea of murdering his father, by interrogating Edward after the murder, it is shown that she is clearly the person in charge of their relationship since she knows how to manipulate Edward. The relationship between Edward and his mother is not an example of an ideal male-female relationship, or a mother-son relationship, since both parties do not show respect towards the other. This is especially highlighted when Edward's mother asks Edward what he will leave for her since he has to flee his homeland in order to save himself. To this question Edward replies "The curse of hell frae me shall ye beir, sic counseils ye gave to me O." Additionally, because of the troubled relationship Edward has with his mother, Edward appears to treat other females, such as his wife, with the same lack of respect he shows toward his mother. When Edward's mother asks him what he will leave behind for his children and wife, Edward replies nothing since the world is large enough for them to beg through life (line 46). The ballad "Bonny Barbara Allan" presents a male-female relationship that does not work primarily because of the stubbornness and demands of the parties involved. The relationship between Sir John Graeme and Barbara Allan can be characterized as stubborn since both of them are headstrong, although Sir Graeme a little less so since he is dying. Barbara Allan is portrayed as being more headstrong because she refuses to acknowledge the fact that Sir Graeme is dying for her love. This is because Barbara Allan is still mad at Sir Graeme for a past incident, where Sir Graeme slighted her at a tavern (lines 13-16 and lines 18-20). Although Sir Graeme and Barbara Allan do not see eye to eye, their relationship is the closest among those of the three ballads to be representative of at least a "normal" male-female relationship, even if not of an ideal one. Although Barbara Allan does not proclaim her love for Sir Graeme as Sir Graeme did for her, Sir Graeme still tells his friends to "be kind to Barbara Allan" (line 24). Even though Sir Graeme slighted Barbara Allan in the past, Barbara Allan tells her mother to fix her coffin since "my love died for me to-day, I'll die for him to-morrow" (lines 35-36). These actions show that both of them did respect, and probably love each other, even if both of them, especially Barbara Allan, were reluctant in showing each other how they felt about one another. Among the three relationships, the relationship between Lord Arlen and his wife, from the ballad "Mattie Groves", is the one least like an ideal male-female relationship because of the high level of deception and patriarchy their relationship involves. The relationship between Lord Arlen and his wife contains deception since Lord Arlen's wife is sleeping with Mattie Groves, despite the fact she is married. Furthermore, Lord Arlen's wife promises Mattie Groves that Lord Arlen will not
Saturday, March 14, 2020
The Religion Impact on the International Political Scene Religion is a phenomenon that has a great impact on human society. Religion is an aspect that has facilitated changes in families, relationships, communities, and political lives. Religion affects human beliefs and values and triggers them to behave in a certain manner. According to Johnstone, religion influences human action as it interprets their experiences based on the underlying religious meanings. Sociologists in this case have studied how religion influences different spheres of human life. In this context, we will review how religion has influenced politics and religious fundamentalism. In addition, we will review how social classes and gender differences influence religious expression. Many religious studies have concerned themselves with secularization. They study how secular institutions such as politics affect society. The relationship that exists between religion and politics presents itself in speeches, roundtables, and congregations all across the globe. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Religion Impact on the International Political Scene specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Christian, religion relates to politics in more than one way. It has affected political circles by bringing about legitimacy in different regimes. It has also triggered social changes by facilitating understanding in justice systems. However, the relationships that exist between the two social institutions depend on the content and level of the political system and religion. The two social institutions comprise of various subgroups of people who follow certain norms (17). The functions of the two institutions overlap each other. This brings about a conflict of interest as they both involve same parties. The same parties have expectations in relation to commitment and involvement to their followers. According to Christian, the difference that exists between the two institutions is an aspect of se cularization. The difference between the two has widened with time specifically in the west. For instance, the institutions that were once constituents of religious organizations have separated from the religious groups (15). Religious groups are no longer the providers of health, social welfare, and education. These functions through political influences have become independent. The distinction between secular spheres such as politics and religion results to secularization (Christian 19). According to Putnam, religious fundamentalism is a phenomenon that has influenced international politics as well as events occurring in the 21st century. Religious fundamentalism is a movement that concerns itself with the religious erosion as well as the role of such erosion in society (4). According to Johnstone, religious fundamentalism involves the protection of certain religious contents or protection of norms associated with religion. Relative to traditions, fundamentalism does not exist t o defend its aspects (57). It accepts and re-modifies some of these aspects. Relative to modernity, fundamentalism accommodates some aspects but refuses others. For instance, it accommodates the technological and organizational aspects of modernization. On the other hand, refuses the ideologies of pluralism as well as relativism. Religious fundamentalists believe and view the world as an avenue of light and darkness. They believe that they represent the light. They also believe that their world is pure. The world that is outside the group represents darkness. This world accommodates sin and it is contaminated. According to Putnam, religious fundamentalists exist as small sects that do not have connections in politics (9).Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Christian, the social class has an influence on the religious expressions and involvement. On a sociolo gical point of view, the truth-value of religion is not the only factor that entails belonging to a religious group (17).Lower class persons are less likely to associate themselves with religious groups compared to the upper class persons. A survey carried out in the year 2005 revealed that the income of the Baptists compared to the Unitarians was less than two thirds. The Unitarians are a denomination popular among the upper class members of the society. In addition, five percent more Unitarians graduated from college compared to the Baptists. This data reveals that a social class has an impact on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s religious affiliation (Christian 19). Gender differences have an influence on the religious expression and affiliation. According to Christian, gender difference exists as a factor that greatly determines a personÃ¢â¬â¢s association with religion (16). According to Johnstone, women have a tendency to associate with public as well as private religious practices compare d to men. The magnification of the difference comes about in relation to the age, educational status, and religious denomination. Relative to men, college students are skeptical towards religion and belonging to a religious group. On the other hand, men sought spirituality and religion as they advance with age. In other words, men seek religion and spirituality as they mature and take up permanent roles in the society. For example, family oriented roles trigger men to seek religion and spirituality. In conclusion, it is important that we acknowledge the impact religion has on the international political scene. Religion has become the basis of most conflicts both at the local and international scene. Religion is a tool that fuels hatred and facilitates violence when exploited maliciously. Usually, this involves protection of political interests. Here, religion and politics integrate to form destructive tools of violence and distraction. Christian, Smith. Souls in Transition: The Re ligions and Spiritual Lives of Emerging Adults. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print. Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society, Sociology of Religion. Pearson: Prentice-Hall, 2007. Print.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Religion Impact on the International Political Scene specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Putnam, Robert. American Grace. How Religion Divides and Unites Us. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010. Print.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Sport Diplomacy - Essay Example Sport provides a tool for governments to preserve and reinforce their international cohesion and retain their international prestige, and that is the main reason why the majority of states consider their participation in the Olympic Games mandatory, using the latter as an opportunity to enhance their economic and cultural images and to deliver political messages (Jaffe and Nebenzahl, 2006, p.68). Sport as well reflects trends occurring in ideological politics (Jaffe and Nebenzahl, 2006, p.71). As vividly explained by Jaffe and Nebenzahl (2006), during 1924 Olympic Games US rugby football team experienced significant aggression, which illustrated the German propaganda, impact of international politics on public opinion and the reversing side of sport events as diplomatic tool, a counter-diplomatic in this particular case (Jaffe and Nebenzahl, 2006, p.71). Furthermore, sport constitutes a mirror for international conflicts, relations, dilemmas and solutions, since one has only to take a look on the images and representations from big international competitions like The Football World Cup or the Olympic Games to identify depending on the historical period a certain national pride (the United States during most of the Olympic Games) or national malaise (Iraq Olympic Team in the last two Olympic Games). This particular paper aims to examine different situations on how sport is used as a part of political diplomatic strategy and how communicative tactics are utilized to enhance application of sports as a diplomatic and political tool. The first part of the paper discusses the role and scope of sport diplomacy, and communication and ethical dimensions of sport diplomacy. Simultaneously, the second part examines the origin of sport...From the theoretical perspective, sport diplomacy is defined as the utilization of sport to pursue political objectives (Senn, 1999, p.35). The scope of sport diplomacy ultimately depends on what political objectives should be met, therefore, sport diplomacy can be used as a tool of state internal affairs or a method aimed to enhance or worsen diplomatic relations between countries. Analyzing the application of sport as a diplomatic tool, it is necessary to emphasize that for many nations sports have served as a form of national identity. Successes by individuals have become symbolic of the nation (Ilmarinen, 1984, p.9). It seems that international sporting activities have been especially important when nations were either struggling for independence or consolidation (Lowe et al, 1978, p.51). As an example of the national importance of sport achievements, one can refer to the medals received by the South Korean athletes in the Seoul Olympics (Guttman, 1992, p.43). Their medals were regarded as valuable and signified national prestige in the country, which during that period was trying to i mprove its international and economic status. One might rationalize that sport diplomacy plays an important role in enhancing the social mobility of underdeveloped countries in the international arena. It would seem that the nationalistic character of sport diplomacy has become even more important to developed nations. The historical facts which identify the close relationship between sport diplomacy and political ideology are abundant