Wednesday, September 2, 2020
I TLD comprehend the structure when I previously observed ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Image spring up, however with further Investigation, It developed on me. Possibly It Is on the grounds that I am not an outdoorsy sort of individual But rather the manner in which the structure Is planned, Is one of a kind and quit charming. This structure has many square edges, it appears to be essential along the outside of the structure. We will compose a custom paper test on Fallingwater Critque or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now However, it is the point at which you take a gander at the materials utilized, the stones along the outside dividers and the red paned windows and railings that appear to unite everything all. I despite everything don't know whether I like the manner in which the structure is assembled, however it works for itÃ¢â¬â¢s private and cozy area. It seems to have been constantly made for this area, the structure appears to be practically common. Furthermore, the hues work very well together, once more, all common. Structure: The structure of the structure shifts with every zone. There are 3 even plate comprised of fortified solid which structure there three degrees of the house. There are four docks, or supports secured Into a rock underneath the shopping center floor go about as the support for the house. Counterbalancing weight to the back, or north side, of the house shield it from toppling into the stream. The cantilever, which is the long bit of cement underneath the structure is the reason for the whole structure. Materials: The materials which Frank Lloyd Wright has used to make the falling water building were extremely basic. He utilized sandstone, strengthened solid, steel and glass. Which all the materials can be seen by loping directly at the structure. The structure has numerous shapes and lines, however together it streams calmly. Some that re seen are pentagon, square shape, semi-circle and squares bits of the structure. Discussing them independently, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t figure they would stream as pleasantly. Be that as it may, they accomplish cooperate In this setting. Setting: the earth and the structure all stream pleasantly together. In the event that this structure was worked in a rustic region in a network of other country homes, it could NEVER fit in. Be that as it may, this structure makes nature and climate as though it was constantly made to be there. It has become on with the waterway and encompassing scene. It develops as the trees would develop that drift the waterway and building. The most effective method to refer to Fallingwater Critque, Papers
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Zeitouns valor and valiance have made understood to me that being a saint is Ã¢â¬ ¦ well, truly cursed dumb. On the off chance that not that, at that point in any event, being a saint is imprudent and incautious. Zeitoun went out of sight his approach to help other people in a tornado of noble cause and confidence. In doing as such, he made extraordinary harm himself and those nearest to him. Zeitoun went well beyond what was solicited from him to help individuals from his locale, overlooking the one thing asked of him by his stressed spouse, who requested he clear with her and the family. Similarly as he had gotten into the force of routinely taking care of certain mutts deserted by their proprietors every day, Zeitoun was captured under misleading allegations, rendering him unfit to contact Kathy. His nonappearance left his family troubled and perplexed. Kathy froze step by step, appealing to get notification from her significant other, with no such karma until some other time. We will compose a custom article test on Zeitoun Analysis or on the other hand any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page While Abdulrahman was feeling the loss of, his family abroad was similarly as stressed over him. His sibling would call Kathy, by and by asked to twist reality with regards to her spouses whereabouts. While Zeitoun was detained, his family mixed to get yet a word from, him, also the mutts passed on. I would stop and think now and again in the story, does Zeitoun set aside the effort to survey whether the potential outcomes merit the great he is attempting to do? His time in jail shows him thinking about the great hed done, just as petitioning God for a superior circumstance, however I don't remember one time at which he says to himself that he unquestionably ought to have left New Orleans. Did he not expect at all that in all the distrustfulness of a basic tropical storm in a post-9/11 society that a Middle Eastern Muslim man would be an objective for fanaticism and utilized as a substitute? Despite the fact that, his detainment was totally baseless, alongside the charges brought against him and allegations made against him, nothing ought to have been a shock to Zeitoun. Zeitoun was either unequipped with the information that this countrys beliefs of equity are a long way from great and that the official part of our legislature is inclined to speedy, cruel choices and brisk, complete judgmentsÃ¢â¬ ¦ or just not insightful. The consequences of Zeitouns poor choice to remain in New Orleans adhered to Kathy for the remainder of what we read of her life in Zeitoun. Kathys mental sound was yielded all in light of the fact that Zeitoun absurdly stayed in the city, with information that an especially risky tempest was drawing closer. Before the finish of the story, I couldnt help however notice the amount Abdulrahmans Ã¢â¬Å"courageÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"faithÃ¢â¬ take after naivete. He remained in New Orleans to brave Katrina in light of the fact that he was resolved and arrogant. Any reasonable person would agree that having been a mariner, he was tough enough to deal with a storm, however with a family and the understanding that numerous others get stirred up in the spiraling downpour of a cataclysmic event, it is additionally reasonable for state that he was unable to have been arranged enough. Zeitoun tells that he felt called by God to help individuals in the tempest, yet this, I reason, was close to a surge he felt from finishing an effective salvage. Everybody needs to be a saint. The vibe of doing useful for others accomplishes more useful for the great practitioner than ought to be finished. One of my preferred verses says, Ã¢â¬Å"When you help other people, you cannot resist helping yourself. Ã¢â¬ For a man to be so self-satisfied with an eccentric power of nature that he would allow it to come and see what happens is undeniably silly. Abdulrahman declining to clear with his better half intently looks like a youngster on a play area, yelling to his mom, Ã¢â¬Å"No, Mommy! I dont wanna go! Ã¢â¬ Zeitoun, a useful novel by creator Dave Eggers is a story about how confidence and Ã¢â¬Å"courageÃ¢â¬ can truly mess things up. The irresponsible hero of the account, Abdulrahman Zeitoun, gives us how being pompous and letting ourselves become too agreeable can lastingly repercuss on the lives of our better half and family. Zeitouns presumptuousness and naivete have made it totally certain that attempting to be a saint is truly condemned moronic.
Friday, August 21, 2020
How to Write a Scientific Paper - Tips For the CuriousScientific paper writing is more complex than a typical essay. In fact, the length of time required to write a good scientific paper is roughly ten times longer than an average essay. To get through this time, you should set aside some time each day to devote to your work. There are some tricks that can help you out.Before you even begin writing your scientific paper, you need to decide which topic or theme you are going to cover. This is extremely important. You can't make a decision if you don't know what kind of paper you will be writing. You can find tons of free information on the web about topics, themes, and so on. It is just a matter of finding the right one for you.Once you have chosen a topic, then you should do some initial research on that topic. This will give you a better idea of what is already available. There is no reason to become discouraged if your research leads you to find that there is not a great deal of li terature on a certain topic. All it means is that the topic may not be something that you will be interested in pursuing. You can always try writing a couple of articles on the topic before you get to write your paper.Next, you should find a good guide or tool to help you organize your thoughts before you begin writing your scientific paper. If possible, use the same guide that your professor will have used in the past. This way, you will know how to structure your paper. If you want, you can even use the same style guide that your professor uses. This will give you a general idea of how it should look.The most important tool that you should have is a notebook. You should have a notebook containing your first draft as well as a separate notebook for editing your work. This way, you will be able to write down all of your ideas that you come up with and just go over them as you go along.To write properly, you will have to practice. With this said, it is important that you do not rush your work at all. Take your time to learn what works best for you and just write down what comes to mind. You will find that the more you write, the better you will get at it.Finally, when you are writing your paper, try to think about what kind of subject matter you are writing about. You should try to determine the problem or question that you are trying to answer in the paper. In this way, you will be able to write about your work objectively. You should also put into consideration your audience when writing about certain topics or problems.This is a great tool to use. You will find that this is the best way to write a paper. You will also find that it is a fun and enjoyable process.
Thursday, June 4, 2020
Genetically Modified Crops (Essay Sample) Content: Genetically modified cropsStudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s nameInstitutional affiliationsGenetically modified (GM) cropsGene technology is a branch of modern biotechnology concerned with the deliberate modification of the organismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s genome to produce the desired traits. Therefore, Genetic engineering of crops is the alteration of the gene sequence of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of crops by insertion or gene replacement to obtain the specific traits such as pest resistance and drought tolerance. The modified plants are thus referred as genetically modified crops. The aim of the gene technology is to create the new trait that the harvest does not naturally possess. Farmers have widely adopted the GM technology in the cultivation of the different crops to improve the quality and produce.Genetic engineering of plants has seen great success in farming since the first modified antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant in 1982 (Hull, 2009). Golden rice is genetically modified, and the crop is altered to produce high levels of vitamin A. Daffodils, and a bacterium genes are implanted to provide beta-carotene elements that are converted to vitamin A in the body. Genetically modification of tomatoes runs back to 1994 when the first modified tomatoes were availed to the consumers (Forman, 2010). Currently over 50 crops are genetically engineered to serve the growing populations. The field of crop genetic engineering has shown significant progress due to the greater understanding of the deoxyribonucleic acid as the chemical double helix bond that is the basis for genes.Modern plant design utilizes the recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A gene is a genetic print and is the molecular unit of inheritance and each segment of the DNA codes for the synthesis of a particular product. DNA extraction techniques aim to lyse the cells and solubilize the DNA that is amplified using PCR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is series of steps method th at multiply or amplify the DNA. Millions of DNA copies can be produced from a single DNA copy. The DNA segments can then be combined with a series of procedures and integrated into the chromosome of a different crop. Genetic engineering allows the transfer of one or few genes to closely-related or distant organisms (Hull, 2009).The technique of genetic engineering involves the use of one or more gene sequences from one organism into the chromosome of the target organism. It involves five critical steps which are DNA extraction, gene cloning, gene design, and transformation and backcross breeding. DNA is extracted from the desired organism, a single gene is separated from the other genes, develops the gene, the gene is inserted into the cells, and finally transgenic crops are crossed with elite breeding lines. The intended gene is usually marked by an antibiotic resistant marker gene and then isolated on culture plate containing the respective antibiotic. A bacteria or naked virus is used to inject the gene into the recipient genome (Carter, 2011).The central dogma of gene engineering is that DNA contains the genetic information and the information flows from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, from nucleic acid to the protein but never from the protein to the nucleic acid. Proteins can make copies of DNA but cannot make copies of proteins independent of the genetic blueprint. The specific enzymes that are involved in genetic engineering have an essential function. Restriction and ligases enzymes identify specific DNA sequences and cut them into smaller fragments (Hull, 2009). Genetic code and DNA structure are universal thus allow the recombination of DNA from the different organism. Recombinant DNA technology, therefore, enables construction of crops with novel traits.However, ethical and social concerns provide possible implication on the genetic engineering of plants despite Food and Drug Association declaring them safe for consumption. Several objections have been made to GM crops based on various grounds including environmental concerns, ethical, social concerns and economic concerns since these plants are guarded by intellectual property law. Extensive debates concerning the genetically modified crops have been rampant over the last quarter century. Ethical arguments have taken up the extensive intellectual rights to genes and their effect on human health, production, and control of the seeds by the processing companies. Despite its high adoption, there exists a multitude of social concerns on GMO. Some authors have extended the arguments to the unnatural medical setting of the food domain. GMO farming has socio-economic impacts on organic and small-scale holder farms (Carter, 2011).GMO use benefits the environment, the farmers, and the consumers. Engineering crops improve the yields, drought tolerance, increases pesticide resistant, enhances the quality of crops and ens... Genetically Modified Crops Essay - 825 Words Genetically Modified Crops (Essay Sample) Content: Genetically modified cropsStudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s nameInstitutional affiliationsGenetically modified (GM) cropsGene technology is a branch of modern biotechnology concerned with the deliberate modification of the organismÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s genome to produce the desired traits. Therefore, Genetic engineering of crops is the alteration of the gene sequence of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of crops by insertion or gene replacement to obtain the specific traits such as pest resistance and drought tolerance. The modified plants are thus referred as genetically modified crops. The aim of the gene technology is to create the new trait that the harvest does not naturally possess. Farmers have widely adopted the GM technology in the cultivation of the different crops to improve the quality and produce.Genetic engineering of plants has seen great success in farming since the first modified antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant in 1982 (Hull, 2009). Golden rice is genetically modified, and the crop is altered to produce high levels of vitamin A. Daffodils, and a bacterium genes are implanted to provide beta-carotene elements that are converted to vitamin A in the body. Genetically modification of tomatoes runs back to 1994 when the first modified tomatoes were availed to the consumers (Forman, 2010). Currently over 50 crops are genetically engineered to serve the growing populations. The field of crop genetic engineering has shown significant progress due to the greater understanding of the deoxyribonucleic acid as the chemical double helix bond that is the basis for genes.Modern plant design utilizes the recombinant DNA technology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A gene is a genetic print and is the molecular unit of inheritance and each segment of the DNA codes for the synthesis of a particular product. DNA extraction techniques aim to lyse the cells and solubilize the DNA that is amplified using PCR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is series of steps method th at multiply or amplify the DNA. Millions of DNA copies can be produced from a single DNA copy. The DNA segments can then be combined with a series of procedures and integrated into the chromosome of a different crop. Genetic engineering allows the transfer of one or few genes to closely-related or distant organisms (Hull, 2009).The technique of genetic engineering involves the use of one or more gene sequences from one organism into the chromosome of the target organism. It involves five critical steps which are DNA extraction, gene cloning, gene design, and transformation and backcross breeding. DNA is extracted from the desired organism, a single gene is separated from the other genes, develops the gene, the gene is inserted into the cells, and finally transgenic crops are crossed with elite breeding lines. The intended gene is usually marked by an antibiotic resistant marker gene and then isolated on culture plate containing the respective antibiotic. A bacteria or naked virus is used to inject the gene into the recipient genome (Carter, 2011).The central dogma of gene engineering is that DNA contains the genetic information and the information flows from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, from nucleic acid to the protein but never from the protein to the nucleic acid. Proteins can make copies of DNA but cannot make copies of proteins independent of the genetic blueprint. The specific enzymes that are involved in genetic engineering have an essential function. Restriction and ligases enzymes identify specific DNA sequences and cut them into smaller fragments (Hull, 2009). Genetic code and DNA structure are universal thus allow the recombination of DNA from the different organism. Recombinant DNA technology, therefore, enables construction of crops with novel traits.However, ethical and social concerns provide possible implication on the genetic engineering of plants despite Food and Drug Association declaring them safe for consumption. Several objections have been made to GM crops based on various grounds including environmental concerns, ethical, social concerns and economic concerns since these plants are guarded by intellectual property law. Extensive debates concerning the genetically modified crops have been rampant over the last quarter century. Ethical arguments have taken up the extensive intellectual rights to genes and their effect on human health, production, and control of the seeds by the processing companies. Despite its high adoption, there exists a multitude of social concerns on GMO. Some authors have extended the arguments to the unnatural medical setting of the food domain. GMO farming has socio-economic impacts on organic and small-scale holder farms (Carter, 2011).GMO use benefits the environment, the farmers, and the consumers. Engineering crops improve the yields, drought tolerance, increases pesticide resistant, enhances the quality of crops and ens...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Transform boundaries are areas where the Earths plates move past each other, rubbing along the edges. They are, however, much more complex than that. There are three types of plate boundaries or zones, each of which features a different type of plate interaction. Transform boundaries are one example. The others areÃ convergentÃ boundaries (where plates collide) andÃ divergentÃ boundaries (where plates split apart). Each of these three types of plate boundary has its own particular type of faultÃ (or crack) along which motion occurs. Transforms areÃ strike-slipÃ faults. There is no vertical movementÃ¢â¬âonly horizontal. Convergent boundaries are thrust or reverse faults, and divergent boundaries are normal faults. As the plates slide across from each other, they neither create land nor destroy it. Because of this, they are sometimes referred to as conservative boundaries or margins. TheirÃ relative movement can be described as either dextral (to the right) orÃ sinistral (to the left). Transform boundaries were first conceived of by Canadian geophysicistÃ John Tuzo Wilson in 1965. Initially skeptical of plate tectonics, Tuzo Wilson was also the first to propose the theory of hotspot Ã volcanoes. Seafloor Spreading Most transform boundaries consist of short faults on the seafloor occurring near mid-ocean ridges. As the plates split apart, they do so at differing speeds, creating spaceÃ¢â¬âanywhere from a few to several hundred milesÃ¢â¬âbetweenÃ spreading margins. As the plates in this space continue to diverge, they do so in opposite directions. This lateral movement forms active transform boundaries. Between the spreading segments, the sides of the transform boundary rub together; but as soon as the seafloor spreads beyond the overlap, the two sides stop rubbing and travel abreast. The result is a split in the crust, called a fracture zone, that extends across the seafloor far beyond the small transform that created it. Transform boundaries connect to perpendicular divergent (and sometimes convergent) boundaries on both ends, giving the overall appearance of zig-zags or staircases. This configuration offsets energy from the whole process. Continental Transform Boundaries Continental transforms are more complex than their short oceanic counterparts. The forces affecting them include a degree of compression or extension across them, creating dynamics known as transpression and transtension. These extra forces are why coastal California, basically a transform tectonic regime, also has many mountainous welts and down-dropped valleys. TheÃ San Andreas faultÃ of California is a prime example of a continental transform boundary; others are the North Anatolian fault of northern Turkey, the Alpine fault crossing New Zealand, the Dead Sea rift in the Middle East, the Queen Charlotte Islands fault off western Canada, and theÃ Magellanes-Fagnano fault systemÃ of South America. Because of the thickness of the continental lithosphere and its variety of rocks, transform boundariesÃ on continents are not simple cracks but wide zones of deformation. The San Andreas fault itself is just one thread in a 100-kilometer skein of faults making up the San Andreas fault zone. TheÃ dangerous Hayward faultÃ also takes up a share of the total transform motion, and the Walker Lane belt, far inland beyond the Sierra Nevada, takes up a small amount too. Transform Earthquakes Although they neither create nor destroy land, transform boundaries and strike-slip faults can create deep, shallow earthquakes. These are common at mid-ocean ridges, but they do not normally produce deadly tsunamisÃ because there is no vertical displacement of seafloor. When these earthquakes occur on land, on the other hand, they can cause large amounts of damage. Notable strike-slip quakes include the 1906 San Francisco,Ã 2010 Haiti,Ã and 2012 SumatraÃ earthquakes. The 2012 Sumatran quake was particularly powerful; its 8.6 magnitude was the largest ever recorded for a strike-slip fault.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Bullying can lead to many unwanted, harmful consequences for both the t victim and tbe perpetrator. There are many actions that are considered bullying as well as many different types of bullying, yet bullying laws already in place seem to be only consider specific types of bullying. If more thorough laws were put into place, instances of bullying would decrease to some degree. Therefore, the state or federal government should put bullying prevention laws into place. Bullying can take place in a variety of ways and is therefore difficult to find one exhaustive definition for. Susan Carter explains bullying as Ã¢â¬Å"a relationship problem involving repeated hostile actions that take place within a relationship characterized by a powerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One of these groups is people with Autism Spectrum Disorders because of Ã¢â¬Å"their difficulties in making and maintain friendshipsÃ¢â¬ (Zablotsky 179). People should not have to endure because of a disability, their sexuality, their size, or any difference between them and others. It is cruel to bully someone for any reason, but especially because they are not like the majority of the world. Statistics from the Government Accountability Office show that Ã¢â¬Å"31.5% of students were called mean names and/or teased, Ã¢â¬ 13.1% were called mean names because of their race or color,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"8.5% were called mean names because of their religion,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"12.8% were p hysically hurt or locked indoorsÃ¢â¬ (Garby 449). This means that out of every one hundred people that are bullied, twelve or thirteen people actually had something physical done to them. This may result in severe injuries for a fair number of people. If the state or federal government made anti-bullying laws, fewer people would have injuries as a result of bullying. According to Israel C. Kalman, Psychology fails to solve the problem of bullying. He believes that Ã¢â¬Å"anti-bullying laws create a new class of criminalÃ¢â¬ (80). Anti- bullying laws consider the bullies criminals. This seems harsh as a common reason that people bully others is that they are simply insecure with themselves. This insecurity may stem from bullying at home. Susan Carter notes thatShow MoreRelatedResearch Paper Bullying1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrategies to Prevent Bullying One in five children between the ages of ten and eighteen, have been bullied both inside and outside of school. Government officials, and school administrators, are taking strides to prevent the act of bullying. Laws and anti-bully programs are being passed all over the United States to stop the bullying epidemic. There are bullies all over, torturing children for things such as appearance, sexual orientation, race, personality and much more. Due to these bullies, childrenRead MoreThe Issues Of Discrimination And Harassment1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesjudiciary system establishes and acts out the laws within the states and territories of Australia, as well as resolving legal disputes through a court system. The legal responsibility an individual or organisation has to an issue is referred to as legal accountability, and the requirements of legal obligation within an issue are the statutory obligations. Knowledge of the judiciary system, legal accountabilities and statutory obligations are necessities for all human service workers. It is becauseRead MoreA Brief Note On Cyberbullying And Its Effects On Society1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimproved extensively over the past few years resulting in new problems. Nearly 43% of kids have been bullied online. 1 in 4 has had it happen more than once (www.DoSomething.org). Before internet bullying was to the extent of picking on each other, name calling or fist fights, Cyberbullying takes bullying to another level. This topic is of huge controversy in schools across the nation, political debates, the president of the United States has even given speeches on it. Many people believe cyberbullyingRead MoreLegal Implications Of Todays School Climate Are Real1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproactive training methods, the necessity of having a legal confidant at the disposal central administration office cannot be denied. From employment discrimination l aws, Americans with Disabilities Act, Title IX, and a slew of individual student issues, having a retained law firm available to the superintendent and related staff is a necessary practice. Andrew Manna represents a variety of school districts around Indianapolis and surrounding areas, as a school and education law attorney. While the focusRead MoreOnline Dating - Breanna Social Media1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescyberbullying as: Bullying that takes place using electronic technology. Electronic technology includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets as well as communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat, and websites. Examples of cyberbullying include mean text messages or emails, rumors sent by email or posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing pictures, videos, websites, or fake profiles. This is a modern form of bullying, which is usingRead MoreSociety And Psychological Disorders ( Dsm 5 )1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesone out every five American adults is diagnosed yearly with a mental disorder (Marsh 1011). In short, not all mental illnesses are dangerous, and they should not be isolated from the world. Individuals with mental disorders face discrimination in necessities such as education or employment. Simm explains that schools can potentially affect a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social development due to the vast amount of influence they have on children (678). In education peers are twice as likely to target students with disabilitiesRead MoreThe Employment Laws1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageseconomy, contracting verses employment, discrimination and the economic stance on the United States is currently in. Employment laws The employment laws that are currently in place for the United States are many; however there are questions that most employees ask when terminated from employment. The employment at will doctrine is as such: According to Cornell Law School, (2013) Ã¢â¬Å"the employee-at-will doctrine refers to the presumption that employment is for an indefinite period of time and mayRead MoreTransgender Kids and Their Right to Choose to Go to Any Bathroom They Please1810 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAB1266), which was an act to amend Section 221.5 of the Education Code, relating to pupil rights. The new law gives all students the right Ã¢â¬Å"to participate in sex-segregated programs, activities and facilitiesÃ¢â¬ based on their self-perceived orientation regardless of their birth gender. AB1266 and Section 221.5 of the Education Code provides equal rights for transgender individuals and promotes anti-discrimination. By allowing transgender boys and girls the right to use a restroom that corresponds toRead MoreThe Position Of A Hr Manager At Both The Uk And Russian Olympics2203 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmeasures if the Olympic Games were to happen again today. I will approach such a task by first outlining t he history and definitions associated with LGBT. I will frame this essay by drawing upon social and political changes through the enactment of laws and social movements, as well as empirical research, class-based discussions, and theories of equality and diversity. Brief history of the definition of LGBT: The acronym LGBT aims to emphasize the diversity of sexuality and gender identity-basedRead MoreToxicity in the Workplace3766 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pages Overview of Toxicity: Ã¢â¬Å"Violence, aggression, bullying, tyranny, harassment, deviance, and injustice Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Cortina 2001), the Ã¢â¬Ëmagnificent sevenÃ¢â¬â¢ anti-socialites comprising Workplace Toxicity. A relatively new field of study, the idea of workplace toxicity develops from the impact of bullying, and the emotional consequences it has on the organization. There has been surging interest over the past two decades on the cause and effect of bullying in the workplace (Rayner, 2002); and an ever-growing
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Explain On May Want To Regulate Natural Monopolies? Answer: Introduction In every economy, natural monopolies play a significant role. Primarily, a monopoly refers to a market in which when only one firm operates and dominates an entire industry (Beggs, 2016). On the other hand, a natural monopoly is a specific type of monopoly that arises when a single find firm dominates the market due to extremely high startup capital and fixed costs associated with Operations in the market. Mainly, natural monopolies exists where there are high fixed costs of production and distribution, thereby necessitating economies of scale. A perfect example of a natural monopoly is the electricity company. It is characterized by high costs of infrastructure in terms of grids and cables for electricity supply. Thus, the efficient number of firms in the industry is one. It is noteworthy that a natural monopoly market differs from a perfect competition in terms of competition, entry and exit requirements, and number of sellers. In a perfect competition, there is free entry and exit of firms while there are high barriers to entry in natural monopoly markets. There is also no form of competition in natural monopolies whereas there is high competition in perfect competition markets. Thus, the structure of natural monopolies provides room for consumer exploitation and governments may want to regulate monopolies to ensure that they produce high quality, fair priced goods at efficient levels. Analysis Reasons for Regulation High Monopoly Market Power One of the major reasons as to why the government may seek to regulate natural monopolies is due to their market structure. As such, the market structure of a natural monopoly necessitates that various measures must be initiated to control firms from exploiting their customers. In a nutshell, a natural monopoly operates as the sole producer of a given product (Arkani, 2010). The firm is also a price maker. Usually, firms limit the quantity they produce in order to push their prices upwards. Furthermore, the market is also characterized by high barriers to entry into the market caused by high capital requirements (Monopoly, n.d.). There are also high legal barriers in the market. For this reason, the firm has a high market power and influences the market. Therefore, the government may step in to limit the market power of natural monopolies to ensure that they do not exploit their customers. Control Price Level As noted earlier, natural monopolies do not face any form of competition in their market. Therefore, they possess a high market power, and are able to control the quantity of goods. In turn, they have the power to set their own prices. In most cases, natural monopolies abuse their market power and set high prices for their goods and services, higher than the price they would have charged if the firm operated in a competitive market structure (Welker, n.d.). For this reason, governments may want to regulate them in order to preserve consumer welfare. According to economic theory, monopolies set their prices at a point that maximizes their profits. Normally, firms manufacture goods at the point where their marginal costs of production equals the marginal revenue. However, they charge the price determined by the demand curve. For this reason, the price they charge is usually high than the marginal cost of production. Consequently, this allows them to obtain high profits at the disadvantage of their consumers welfare. Monopoly Pricing Technique From the graphs above, the MC curve intersects with MR curve at point a (Pettinger, 2012). However, instead of setting its price at this point, the firm locates the demand curve for the product, thereby setting its price from point b (Pettinger, 2012). At this pricing, the price is higher than the Average total costs incurred in the production of the good. Thus, the monopoly makes a profit equal to Pm-ATC (Pettinger, 2012). In contrast, a firm operating in a competitive market sets its prices at the point where the demand and supply curve intersect. Thus, unlike natural monopoly, the price is optimal and there is no deadweight loss associated with its pricing. Therefore, in this regard, the natural monopoly makes supernormal profits and reduces the welfare of consumers. Thus, the government may find it necessary to step in and regulate the pricing level. Enhance Firms Efficiency n addition, governments regulate natural monopolies in order to enhance their level of efficiency. It is worth noting that monopoly firms are associated with various forms of inefficiencies. As noted earlier, natural monopolies do not experience any form of competition. The weakened market forces guarantees that consumers lack other alternatives from which to purchase the product or service (Beggs, 2017). Thus, the firm does not worry about the possibilities of losing customers due to their poor quality goods or services. For this reason, they lack the incentive to improve their level of innovativeness to improve the quality of their commodities. Subsequently, it translates to wastefulness production of goods and services. Therefore, in this case, the government seeks to protect consumers against poor quality services and products by setting and regulating quality standards. Furthermore, natural monopolies also lead to inefficiencies as they reduce the level of producer and consumer surplus (Beggs, 2017). When compared to the competition market structure, the total surplus associated with the monopolistic firms is smaller. Mainly, this can attributed to the fact that monopolies tend to limit the quantity of goods and services they produce in order to influence prices to move upwards. Thus, a reduction in quantity and an increase in price of the product shrink the consumer as well as the producer surplus. In this regard, the management opts to regulate monopolies in order to raise the total surplus to the society. Methods for Regulation Given the reasons above, it is important for the government to regulate the conduct of natural monopolies within its economy. Mainly, regulation can take the form of price ceilings, average cost pricing, rate of return regulation and the formulation of regulatory bodies to oversee and control the conduct of monopolies within the country (Beggs, 2015). Fair Rate of Return Policies First, government may employ rate of return policies to control natural monopolies in the country. Primarily, this technique involves the government setting a particular percentage net profit that a company must not exceed. Usually, it takes into consideration the size of the firm and determines a reasonable level of profit from its initial capital. Therefore, in order to ensure compliance, a firm must ensure that its percent net profit is lower that the set threshold. Thus, the firms rate of return on the invested capital is kept below the maximum rate set by the policy. Consequently, this ensures that firms set their prices at a point that ensures its rate of return on initial investment is low. In turn, the prices are set at low levels to ensure compliance. It is noteworthy that this measure ensures that consumers of that given product are protected from increases in the price of that particular product. Price Caps and Ceilings Notably, this is one of the major forms of regulation that the government can put in place to regulate monopolies. In a nutshell, price ceilings pertain to the setting of a maximum price that a firm can charge for its goods and services (Beggs, 2015). It is strategy that states that a particular product cannot be sold for above a specified price (Beggs, 2015). Thus, firms cannot set a higher price than the one designated by the government. This way, the government is able to limit the prices charged by firms for their products, thereby protecting them from exploitation by natural monopolies. Price Ceiling Regulation Source: (Osborne, 1997). Suppose the government sets a price ceiling for the monopolys product at Pr. Under normal circumstances, the firm would set its price at the point Pm. However, due to the proposed ceiling, the firm is forced to reduce its price down to Pr (Osborne, 1997). Therefore, the government is able to spare consumers an amount equal to Pm-Pr through the price cap. Indeed, this form of regulation allows the government to regulate firms and improve consumer welfare. Government Regulatory Bodies The government may also use regulatory bodies to regulate natural monopolies in the economy. Fundamentally, these bodies are created to examine the quality of products produced by natural monopolies (The Conversation, 2012). The qualities of the products produced are compared to a set of quality standards to ensure that consumers purchase quality goods and services. In addition, these bodies regulate the price level of services and commodities manufactured by natural monopolies within the country. This way, they are able to limit firms from charging consumers exorbitant prices. Apart from assessing quality and controlling pricing levels, regulatory bodies also investigate cases when monopolies are suspected to practice predatory pricing and price fixations (The Conversation, 2012). In the event that a firm is found guilty, the regulatory body takes strict actions and measures against it. As a result, natural monopolies are discouraged from practicing hostile production and market practices (The Conversation, 2012). What is more, these mechanisms guarantee consumer protection and welfare. It also ensures an increase in the efficiency of firms. Average Cost Pricing Policies It is imperative to note that the government may also initiate policies that require natural monopolies to set their prices equal to their average cost of production. By and large, this policy involves setting its price level equal to or below the cost of manufacturing the product. In most cases, natural monopolies maximize their profits by setting price at the point where the marginal cost curve intersects with the demand curve for the product (Reed and LaFaive, 1997). As a result, firms make excessive profits at the expense of the consumer. However, when this policy is implemented, natural monopolies will be forced to trim their prices to equal the cost of production (Reed and LaFaive, 1997). The policy guarantees that the price charged by firms does not exploit their customers. Besides that, it ensures that firms operate at efficient levels to achieve profits. Marginal Cost Pricing Rules Just like average cost pricing rules, the government may use marginal cost rules to regulate natural monopolies. Basically, this policy requires that natural monopolies set their prices equal to the marginal cost incurred in producing their product (Reed and LaFaive, 1997). In turn, it ensures that monopolies do not charge excessive prices for their commodities. In addition, it guarantees that monopolies do not make surplus profit at the disadvantage of the consumer. Example of Regulation of Monopolies in Australia In Australia, the government has set various bodies to act as a watchdog and control the conduct of natural monopolies within the economy. The Energy Regulatory Commission (ERA), for instance, has the mandate to oversee and regulate the price of electricity in the country. As a result, the price of electricity in the country remains affordable to the people of Australia. Conclusion Therefore, everything taken into consideration, it is important for the government to set up measures that ensure the regulation of monopolies in the country. By and large, natural monopolies operate as the sole producer of a particular good or service. As a result, they face no form of competition in the market of their goods and services. This creates a platform for monopolies to exploit their customers through offering poor quality products or high prices. They also lack the incentive to operate under efficient conditions. For this reason, the government is tasked with the responsibility of regulating natural monopolies to ensure they offer fair prices, produce quality goods and services, and operate under efficient conditions. In order to achieve these goals, the government may set up various measures and mechanisms among them average cost pricing measures, rate of return policies, price ceilings, and monopoly regulatory bodies. Consequently, the successful implementation of thes e measures will ensure that the government controls the pricing, quality and efficiency of natural monopolies in the country. References Arkani, G. (2010). Monopoly marketing structure- meaning, features and types. Kaylan City Life. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://kalyan-city.blogspot.co.ke/2010/11/monopoly-market-structure-meaning.html Beggs, J. (2015). Natural monopoly. ThoughtCo. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/natural-monopoly-overview-1147782 Beggs, J. (2016). What Is a Monopoly?. ThoughtCo. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-monopoly-1147778 Beggs, J. (2016). What You Need to Know About Monopolies and Monopoly Power. ThoughtCo. 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